GE Hydro (EA) Consulting is an engineering and development consultancy company with a worldwide network. Our highly experienced professionals specialize in techno-economic and management consultancy services.

We offer expertise in two key areas:

  • Natural Resources and Renewable Energy
  • Water and Environment



For some years, the energy industry has registered a steady decline in new recruits, with science, engineering and technical (SET) skills particularly affected. Since the 1970s, many parts of the industry underwent a slow growth rate, and therefore the skills situation had been manageable.

However, over the last decade, the risk of future serious shortages in SET skills has emerged, exacerbated by increasing global demand, and a large section of the industry’s workforce approaching retirement. Such shortages are being felt at all professional levels, from technical specialists and operators to leaders and senior managers.

Fundamentally, a primary barrier for the appropriate training, mentoring and skills transfer is the lack of strategic effort by all stakeholders. Implementation of such a strategy would have put in place a high-growth job training initiative to prepare workers for new job opportunities in vital industries, such as energy, in our economies.  It would also provide the national leadership for a demand driven workforce system, however, it is one of the key ingredients missing in most utilities today, and especially in least developed countries.

The utility sector in most African countries has lacked three basic strategies, namely, developing human resources through education and training, appropriately deploying human resources, and providing incentives to ensure that they are productively deployed. The utility sector, private companies, academia and government should focus on these areas and forge a strategic partnership that will make the energy sector an enticing place for skilled resources to work.

  1. Kassana, L.B (2011), “Developing Small Hydropower”, published as part of conference proceedings 4th Annual Hydropower Africa, Johannesburg, SA September 19-22, 2011. ESI Africa.
  2. Kassana, L.B (2011), Transforming Rwanda Electricity Subsector, ESI Africa, Issue #2, pp 17-20.
  3. Kassana, L.B (2011), Transforming Rwanda Electricity Subsector“Strategies, Achievements, Challenges & Lessons”, published as part of conference proceedings of the Power Indaba Summit and Africa Utility Week held in Cape Town, South Africa, March 14-17, 2011.
  4. Kassana, L.B. (2010), IBWT project could have impact on Congo River Hydropower Potential. Posted by Chanel de Bruyn, edited byMariaan Webb [online] 18th August 2010.  Available at
  5. Kassana, L.B (2010), Developing Small Hydropower Projects, published as part of the Proceedings of the Hydropower Africa 2010 Conference held in Johannesburg, South Africa, August 16-20, 2010.
  6. Kassana, L.B (2010), Africa’s Major Water Basins Living Side by Side but not in “Peace” and “Security”, published in  the Proceedings of the Hydropower Africa 2010 Conference held in Johannesburg, South Africa, August 16-20, 2010.
  7. Kassana, L.B (2010), Removal of Barriers a boost to hydropower projects. Interviewed by Rose Kamau, Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, Accessed at, Sunday, August 29, 2010,  9:36pm EAT.
  8. Kassana, L.B (2010). UNTAPPED African Hydropower Resources. Interviewed by David Sparkes, ChinAfrica Magazine, May 26, 2010. pp 26-27.
  9. Kassana, L.B (2008), Impact of Management Services Outsourcing on the Performance of State Owned Enterprises in Tanzania – A Case of Tanzania Electric Supply Limited. Unpublished MBA Dissertation submitted to the University of Dar es Salaam (, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. November 2008.
  10. Kassana, L.B & Isidro, V (2008), Hydro Powers Tea Production in Africa - “Greening” the Tea Industry in East Africa Project, HRW Magazine, Vol. 16, number 3, July 2008, Kansas City, Missouri, USA.
  11. Kassana, L.B (2007), Adding Value to the Existing Hydropower Dams in Tanzania – A Conceptual Analysis of Utilizing Environmental Bypass Flow through Lower Kihansi Dam, International Water Power and Dam Construction, (, Vol. 59, No. 8, August 2007.
  12. Kassana, L.B (2005), Model for Prediction of Variations in Rock Stress on Basis of Rock Mass Characteristics – Case Study of Lower Hydropower Project, Tanzania, Africa  published as part of the HydroVision 2006 International Conference on Hydropower held in Portland, Oregon, USA in August 2006. HCI Publications Inc.
  13. Kassana, L.B (2005), Small Hydropower for Rural Development: An Overview of the Nile Basin Countries published in  the Proceedings of the Waterpower XIV Conference ( held in Austin, Texas, USA. July 18-23, 2005. HCI Publications Inc.
  14. Kassana, L.B. (2005), Tanzania Hydropower 2005: A Hydropower Tour of Tanzania, Yearbook 2005 of International Water Power and Dam Construction, Published by Wilmington Publishing Ltd (, London, UK. March 2005.
  15. Kassana, L.B, Kabaka, K &Halvorsern, A (2006), Resolving contractors’ claims:  Lessons from Lower Kihansi Hydropower Project, Tanzania, East Africa, Hydro Review Worldwide Magazine, HCI Publications Inc., (, Volume 14, Number 4, September 2006. 
  16. Kassana, L.B (2004), Engineering Geology as a Tool for Resolving Contractors’ Claims: A case of Lower Kihansi Hydropower Project, Tanzania, East Africa, Proceedings of the HydroVision 2004 Conference ( held in Montreal, Canada August 2004.
  17. Kassana, L.B and Roti, Jan-Atle (2003). Use of Rock Stress Measurements in the Lower Kihansi Hydropower Power House Cavern, Tanzania. Proceedings of the Hydro Africa 2003 International Hydropower Conference ( held in Arusha, Tanzania. November 17-21, 2003. International Center for Hydropower, Trondheim, Norway.
  18. Kassana, L.B and Nilsen, B (2003). Analysis of Water Leakages in the Lower Kihansi Hydropower Headrace System, Tanzania. Paper # 170 in the Proceedings of the Waterpower XIII Conference ( held in Buffalo, New York, USA. July 29-31, 2003. HCI Publications Inc.
  19. Kassana, L.B (2002), Analysis of Water Leakages in the Lower Kihansi Hydropower Headrace System, Tanzania. Unpublished MSc. Thesis submitted to the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (, Trondheim Norway, June 2002


  1. Technical Assistance Facility for the Sustainable Energy for All (SE4ALL) Initiative West & Central Africa: Identification Study for Hydropower Potentials on Akanyaru Trans boundary River, Rwanda/Burundi, May - July 2014.
  2. Technical due-diligence/reviews for Funding Eligibility Note to the French Development Bank (AFD)/KAM for financing 6 private small hydropower projects in Kenya namely KTDA Nyamindi Hydro 2 MW, KTDA Gura Hydro 5 MW, KTDA Chania Hydro 1 MW, KTDA Iraru Hydro 1.5 MW, KTDA North Mathioya 5MW and KTDA South Mara, July to October 2013.
  3. Assessment on Hydropower Vulnerability and Sustainability w.r.t climate change and anthropogenic activities in Tanzania funded by World Bank and implemented by SWECO Norge/GEHYDRO Consulting, 2013 and 2015.
  4. Hydropower Review and Assessment/Preparation for Integrated Water Resources Management and Development (IWRMD) Plans for Pangani River Basin, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa Basins in Tanzania. Funded by World Bank/GoT, Dec 2012 to July 2014.
  5. Preparing Risk Assessment and Dam Safety Plan of Karazi Dam (Tanzania) and Maira Dam (Kenya) within Kagera River Basin under Nile Basin Organization (NBI/NELSAP), July – December 2014.
  6. Geotechnical Consulting Services for Giciye Small Hydropower 4 MW Project in Nyabihu District, Rwanda. May 2012 to December 2012.
  7. Technical due-diligence/reviews and certifying funding eligibility note to the French Development Bank (AFD) for financing 6 private small hydropower projects in Uganda namely Kyambura SHP 7 MW, Lubilia SHP 5 MW, Kakaka SHP 5 MW, Rwimi I SHP 5 MW, Siti I SHP 3 MW and Lower Nsongya SHP 7 MW, May 8, 2012 to April 2013.
  8. Dam Review Panel Member for Designs and Constructions for LWH Project (Gatsibo-8, Nyanza-23, Karongi 12 and 13 Earthfill dams), Rwanda, 2011 to 2015
  9. Feasibility Study for North Mathioya Small Hydropower scheme, Murang’a, Kenya
  10. Feasibility Study for Tagabi Hydropower Upgrade Scheme, Kericho, Kenya
  11. Feasibility Study for Kipchoria Hydropower scheme, Nandi Hills, Kenya
  12. Feasibility Study for Suma Hydropower Scheme, Tukuyu, Tanzania
  13. Feasibility Study for Ruo Hydropower Upgrade Scheme, Mulanje, Malawi
  14. Feasibility Study and Construction Management for Giciye Small Hydropower Scheme, Rwanda
  15. Feasibility Study for Gura Small Hydropower Project, Nyeri, Kenya
  16. Feasibility Study for Nchwera Small Hydropower Project, Bushenyi, Uganda
  17. Reconnaissance Study of Mini Hydropower Potentials in Kagera Region, Tanzania, 2009-2010
  18. Feasibility Study for RuhudjiMapembas4 MW Mini Hydropower Development, Njombe Diocese, Tanzania. September 2005
  19. Design Studies for Reinforcement & Upgrading of Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro and Arusha 132 kV Transmission Lines , Tanzania
  20. Emergency Power Plants: Environmental Audit Work for Power Plants at NyakatoMwanza, Ubungo Dar and Tegeta IPTL sites, Tanzania
  21. Ngorongoro Conservation Area Electrification Studyfor 33kV underground cable, NgorongoroConservation Area, Arusha Tanzania.
  22. Construction Supervision for LOWER KIHANSI HYDROPOWER PROJECT, TANZANIA (180 MW).
  24. Electrification studies for Songea and Mbinga districts + Rehabili­tation/Up-rating studies for three mini hy­dropower stations, Tanzania.
  25. MANDERA Hydropower Scheme Feasibil­ity studies. The scheme studies were financed by NORDIC countries financial assistance. Tanga Tanzania
  26. Construction Supervisions for Pangani Falls Re­development Project (68 MW), Tanzania.
  27. Design Studies for 220 kV Transmis­sion Lines for Lower Kihansi Hydropower Project, Tanzania
  28. Detail Design Studies for Lower Kihansi Hydro Elec­tric Power Project (180 Mw), Tanzania
  29. Construction Supervisions for interconnection 132 kV Transmission line [route length 160 km] from Masaka, Uganda to Bukoba, Tanzania, 1991

Natural Resources and Renewable Energy

The natural resource and renewable energy sector is at the core of our engagements. We pride ourselves on our renewable energy expertise – and will continue to develop clean renewable energy wherever possible and in a techno-economic and environmental sustainable manner.

Power generation, transmission and distribution

Our extensive range of services effectively combines technical studies, design, engineering and project management for energy generation, transmission and distribution projects.

We have rich experience in transmission lines (up to 220 kV), distribution lines and grid extension, rural electrification and ground cables.

Natural Resources

We have extensive experience in the natural resources field and have been involved in many natural resource management projects around the region.

We provide comprehensive, cross-disciplinary environmental services and have many years’ experience of environmental impact assessment and mitigation.

Our services also include:

  • Hydropower Master Planning
  • Hydrology and hydrologic modeling
  • River basin management and modeling
  • International river management
  • Flood monitoring and control 
  • Land use planning and environmental impact assessments (EIA)
  • Projects’ Construction Management and Supervision
  • Capacity Building and Training Services in the Energy Sector


Impact Assessments

We have wide experience of environmental, economic and social impact assessments at the feasibility stage, during construction and after completion stages.

Climate Change Policy

Through our networks, we can assist our clients with climate change and international climate change policies, offering strategic advice, technical assistance, risk assessment and due diligence of CDM projects.

Geotechnical and Tunneling Services

GE Hydro thru her professionals has a proven track record in tunneling and geotechnical engineering services for large and small infrastructure projects in the Eastern Africa region and can use the experience gained from these projects to provide expert services to our clients. GE Hydro has a strong team of geotechnical engineers, engineering geologists and surveyors dedicated to providing cost effective, robust and innovative solutions to surface, underground and mining engineering problems for a wide range of clients. GE Hydro thru her professionals has refined years of experience to develop specialized skills in the fields of soft and hard ground engineering and underground space development.

GE Hydro design experience also includes dam and hydropower developments. GE Hydro thru her professionals’ wealth of experience and knowledge in these highly specialized areas is well recognized within the industry in the region. GE Hydro professionals’ experience in mining and ground/underground assignments dates back to the 1990s with the Pangani Falls Redevelopment and Lower Kihansi Projects in Tanzania where new techniques in tunneling evolved, enabling the construction of major underground powerhouse caverns and intake shafts.

GE Hydro can assists power and mining companies to improve efficiency and financial performance through innovative technical solutions for supporting infrastructure, including: energy and water supply, road and rail transport, social infrastructure, Environmental and Social Impact Assessments and project management

'What’s exciting in the tunneling and underground space is the unparalleled benefits provided by the tunneling industry'

Exclusive interview with Leonard Kassana, GE Hydro Consulting Engineers & Planners Ltd, Dar es Salaam who discusses the Lower Kihansi Hydropower Plant in Tanzania at Hydropower Africa. Here is a sneak preview...

  • Can you give us some background on the project?Lower Kihansi Hydro power Plant

TANESCO's Lower Kihansi hydro power plant located on the Kihansi River Falls, a tributary of the Kilombero River in Tanzania was commissioned formally in July 2000 but has been operational since 1999.

The hydro power plant, located in the Ududzungwa escarpment, utilizes a net head of 850m to generate 180MW with a provision for additional 120 MW in the future making a total future installed capacity of 300 MW.

The existing system at Kihansi includes a 25m high concrete gravity dam, which impounds a small reservoir with total water storage of 1.6 Million m3 with a live storage of 1.0 Million m3. The intake connects to the 2.2km inclined 1:7 headrace tunnel of 34-37.5m2 via a 25sq.m circular unlined 500m vertical headrace shaft. The power house cavern (12.6m wide, 98m long and 32m high) has 3 units driven by Pelton turbines each with a generation capacity of 60 MW connects to the 2km tailrace tunnel and 1.9km access tunnel. Total tunnels length is in the order of 10km including auxiliary tunnels.